Vaccines: Mercury/Thimerosal/Autism


Contributed to TLB by: The Children’s Health Defense Team

Thimerosal is an organic compound that is 49.6% ethyl mercury by weight. Developed as an antiseptic and antibacterial product, pharmaceutical companies began to use thimerosal in vaccines in the 1930s for the intended purpose of preventing bacterial contamination due to repeated needle punctures into multi-dose vials of vaccine. Below are links to abstracts from over 190 research studies detailing the effects of including thimerosal in vaccines.

Annotated Version of Peer-Reviewed, Published Research Linking Autism, Mercury and Thimerosal

In February 2017, Children’s Health Defense collected 89 peer-reviewed published articles linking autism, mercury and thimerosal. Each of these article abstracts are presented here along with a short annotation in layman terms about what the researchers found and how the findings are linked to autism. The science continues to accumulate that mercury and thimerosal are potent drivers of the autism epidemic. Download PDF (36.4MB)

Publications/Studies of interest:

  1. Mercury (all sources) Research

  2. Mercury-Autism Research

  3. Mercury-Thimerosal-Autism Research (PDF 36.4MB)

  4. Adams 2007 – Mercury, Lead, and Zinc in Baby Teeth of Children with Autism Versus Controls

  5. Agrawal 2007 – Thimerosal Induces TH2 Responses via Influencing Cytokine Secretion By Human Dendritic Cells

  6. Barile 2012 – Thimerosal Exposure in Early Life and Neuropsychological Outcomes 7-10 Years Later

  7. Baskin 2003 – Thimerosal Induces DNA Breaks, Caspase-3 Activation, Membrane Damage, and Cell Death in Cultured Human Neurons and Fibroblasts

  8. Bernard 2001 – Autism: a novel form of mercury poisoning

  9. Bernard 2002 – The role of mercury in the pathogenesis of autism

  10. Bernard 2004 – Association Between Thimerosal-Containing Vaccine and Autism

  11. Bernard 2008 – Early Thimerosal Exposure and Neuropsychological Outcomes

  12. Blanusa 2012 – Mercury Disposition in Suckling Rats: Comparative Assessment Following Parenteral Exposure to Thimerosal and Mercuric Chloride

  13. Blaxill 2004 – Concerns Continue Over Mercury and Autsim

  14. Blaxill 2004 – Thimerosal and Autism? A Plausible Hypothesis that Should Not Be Dismissed

  15. Blaylock 2009 – A Possible Central Mechanism In Autism Spectrum Disorders, Part 1

  16. Blaylock 2009 – A Possible Central Mechanism In Autism Spectrum Disorders, Part 2: Immunoexcitotoxicity

  17. Blaylock 2009 – Immune-Glutamatergic Dysfunction as a Central Mechanism of the Autism Spectrum Disorders

  18. Bradstreet 2003 – A Case-Control Study of Mercury Burden in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

  19. Branch 2009 – Gender-selective Toxicity of Thimerosal

  20. Burbacher 2005 – Comparison of Blood and Brain Mercury Levels in Infant Monkeys Exposed to Methylmercury or Vaccines Containing Thimerosal

  21. Carneiro 2014 – A Systematic Study of the Disposition and Metabolism of Mercury Species in Mice After Exposure to Low Levels of Thimerosal (ethylmercury)

  22. Carneiro 2015 – Thimerosal Induces Apoptotic and Fibrotic Changes to Kidney Epithelial Cells In Vitro

  23. Cave 2008 – The History of Vaccinations in the Light of the Autism Epidemic

  24. Chen 2013 – Effect of Thimerosal on the Neurodevelopment of Premature Rats

  25. Choi 2016 – Ethylmercury-Induced Oxidative snd Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Medicates Autophagic Cell Death: Involvment of Autophagosome – Lysosome Fusion Arrest

  26. Colman 2003 – Mercury in Infants give Vaccines Containing Thimerosal

  27. Crowe 2016 – Mercury as an Environmental Stimulus in the Development of Autoimmunity – A Systematic Review

  28. de Olivera Souza 2016 – A Brain Proteome Profile in Rats Exposed to Methylmercury of Thimerosal (ethylmercury)

  29. Desoto 2010 – Sorting Out the Spinning of Autism: Heavy Metals and the Question of Incidence

  30. Deth 2007 – How environmental and genetic facts combine to cause autism: A redox/methylation hypothesis

  31. Dorea 2008 – Hair Mercury concentrations in Korean Infants Could Be Influenced by Thimerosal-containing Vaccines

  32. Dorea 2008 – Modeling NeurodevelopmentOutcomes and Ethylmercury Exposure from Thimerosal-Containing Vaccines

  33. Dorea 2009 – Comparing Fish-mercury Exposed Amazonian Children: Should We Not Consider Thimerosal-preserved Vaccines?

  34. Dorea 2009 – Neonate Exposure to Thimerosal Mercury from Hepatitis B Vaccines

  35. Dorea 2010 – Infants’ Exposure to Aluminum from Vaccines and Breast Milk During the First 6 Months

  36. Dorea 2010 – Making Sense of Epidemiological Studies of Young children Exposed to Thimerosal in Vaccines

  37. Dorea 2011 – Integrating Experimental (In Vitro and In Vivo) Neurotoxicity Studies of Low-dose Thimerosal Relevant to Vaccines

  38. Dorea 2012 – Multiple Toxic Heavy Metals and Neonatal Neurobehavior in china Require Considering Co-exposure to Thimerosal-ethylmercury and Adjuvant-aluminum

  39. Dorea 2013 – Low-Dose Mercury Eposure in Early Life : Relavance of Thimerosal to Fetuses, Newborns and Infants

  40. Dorea 2014 – Canine Hair as a Model for Tracing Ethylmercury from Thimerosal-containing Vaccines

  41. Dorea 2014 – Premature and Neonate Modeling of Thimerosal Exposure and Neurodevelopment: Additional Comments

  42. Dorea 2015 – Exposure to Mercury and Aluminum in Early Life: Developmental Vulnerability as a Modifying Factor in Neurologic and Immunologic Effects

  43. Dorea 2017 – Abating Mercury Exposure in Young Children Should Include Thimerosal-Free Vaccines

  44. Dorea 2017 – Low-dose Thimerosal in Pediatric Vaccines: Adverse Effects in Perspective

  45. Drum 2009 – Are Toxic Biometals Destroying Your Children’s Future?

  46. Duszczyk-Budhathoki 2012 – Administration of Thimerosal to Infant Rats Increases Overflow of Glutamate and Aspartate in the Prefrontal Cortex: Protective Role of Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate

  47. Eke 2008 – Genotoxicity of Thimerosal in Cultured Human Lymphocytes with and without Metabolic activation Sister Chromatid Exchange Analysis Proliferation Index and Mitotic Index

  48. Elferink 1998 – The Effect of Thimerosal on Neutrophil Migration

  49. Elferink 1999 – Thimerosal_ A versatile sulfhydryl Reagent, Calcium Mobilizer, and Cell Function-modulating Agent

  50. Epstein 2009 – Comparative Toxicity of Preservatives on Immortalized Corneal and Conjunctival Epithelial Cells

  51. Evans 2000 – Regulation Of Sodium Currents Through Oxidation and Reduction of Thiol Residues

  52. Fagan 1977 – Organ Mercury Levels in Infants With Omphaloceles Treated With organic Mercurial Antiseptic

  53. Freitag 1980 – Ethylmercurithiosalicylate – A New Reagent For the Study of Phosphate Transport in Mitochondria

  54. Gadad 2013 – Neuropathology and Animal Models of Autism: Genetic and Environmental Factors

  55. Gallagher 2010 – Hepatitis B Vaccination of Male Neonates and Autism Diagnoses, NHIS 1997-2002

  56. Garrecht 2011 – The plausibility of role for mercury in the etiology of autism: a cellular perspective

  57. Geier 2003 – A Comparative Evaluation of the Effects of MMR Immunization and Mercury Doses from Thimerosal-containing Childhood Vaccines on the Population Prevalence of Autism

  58. Geier 2003 – An Assessment of the Impact of Thimerosal on Childhood Neurodevelopment Disorders

  59. Geier 2003 – Neurodevelopment Disorders after Thimerosal-containing Vaccines: A Brief Communication

  60. Geier 2004 – Neurodevelopmental Disorders Following Thimerosal-Containing Childhood Immunizations: A Follow-Up Analysis

  61. Geier 2005 – The Potential importance of Steroids in the Treatment of Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Other Disorders Involving Mercury Toxicity

  62. Geier 2006 – A Prospective Study of Thimerosal-containing Rho(D)-immune globulin Administration as a Risk Factor for Autistic Disorders

  63. Geier 2007 – An Evaluation of the Effects of Thimerosal

  64. Geier 2008 – Neurodevelopment Disorders, Maternal Rh-Negativity, and Rho(D) Immune Globulins: A Multi-Center Assessment

  65. Geier 2009 – A Prospective Study of Prenatal Mercury Exposure From Maternal Dental Amalgams and Autism Severity

  66. Geier 2009 – Mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired oxidative-reduction activity, degeneration, and death in human neuronal and fetal cells induced by low-level exposure in thimerosal and other metal compounds

  67. Geier 2010 – The Biological Basis of Autism Spectrum Disorders: Understanding Causation and Treatment by Clinical Geneticists

  68. Geier 2013 – A two-phase study evaluating the relationship between Thimerosal-containing vaccine administration and the risk for an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis in the United States

  69. Geier 2014 – A Dose-Response Relationship between Organic Mercury Exposure from Thimerosal-Containing Vaccines and Neurodevelopment Disorders

  70. Geier 2014 – The risk of neurodevelopment disorders following a Thimerosal-preserved DTaP formulation in comparison to its Thimerosal-reduced formulation in the vaccine adverse event reporting system (VAERS)

  71. Geier 2015 – A Case-Control Study Evaluating the Relationship Between Thimerosal-Containing Haemophilus influenza Type b Vaccine Administration and the Risk for a Pervasive Developmental Disorder Diagnosis in the United States

  72. Geier 2015 – Thimerosal exposure and increased risk for diagnosed tic disorder in the United States: a case-control study

  73. Geier 2015 – Thimerosal: Clinical, epidemiologic and biochemical studies

  74. Geier 2016 – A longitudinal cohort study of the relationship between Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccination and specific delays in development in the United States: Assessment of attributable risk and lifetime care costs

  75. Geier 2016 – Thimerosal-Containing Hepatitis B Vaccination and the Risk for Diagnosed Specific Delays in Development in the United States: A Case-Control Study in the Vaccine Safety Datalink

  76. Geier 2016 – Thimerosal-containing Hepatitis B Vaccine Exposure is Highly Associated with Childhood Obesity: A Case-control Study Using the Vaccine Safety Datalink

  77. Geier 2016 – Thimerosal-Preserved Hepatitis B Vaccine and Hyperkinetic Syndrome of Childhood

  78. Geier 2017 – A Case Series of Children with Apparent Mercury Toxic Encephalopathies Manifesting with Clinical Symptoms of Regressive Autistic Disorders

  79. Geier 2017 – Abnormal Brain Connectivity Spectrum Disorders Following Thimerosal Administration: A Prospective Longitudinal Case–Control Assessment of Medical Records in the Vaccine Safety Datalink

  80. Geier 2017 – Increased Risk for an Atypical Autism Diagnosis Following Thimerosal-containing Vaccine Exposure in the United States: A Prospective Longitudinal Case-Control Study in the Vaccine Study Datalink

  81. Geier 2017 – Thimerosal exposure and disturbance of emotions specific to childhood and adolescence: A case-control study in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) database

  82. Gericke 1993 – Thimerosal induced changes of intracellular calcium in human endothelial cells

  83. Gillespie 1992 – Repetitive Transients in Intracellular Ca2+ in Cultured Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

  84. Goldman 2013 – Comparison of VAERS fetal-loss reports during three consecutive influenza seasons: Was there a synergistic fetal toxicity associated with the two-vaccine 2009/2010 season?

  85. Goodwin 1995 – Increased expression of procoagulant activity on the surface of human platelets exposed to heavy-metal compounds

  86. Guida 2016 – MC1568 Inhibits Thimerosal-Induced Apoptotic Cell Death by Preventing HDAC4 Up-Regulation in Neuronal Cells and in Rat Prefrontal Cortex

  87. Haase 2015 – Ethylmercury and Hg2+ induce the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) by human neutrophil granulocytes

  88. Hashimoto 2009 – Increase in intracellular Zn2+ concentration by thimerosal in rat thymocytes: Intracellular Zn2+ release induced by oxidative stress

  89. Havarinasab 2004 – Dose-response study of thimerosal-induced murine systemic autoimmunity

  90. Havarinasab 2005 – Immunosuppressive and autoimmune effects of thimerosal in mice

  91. Havarinasab 2005 – Organic mercury compounds and autoimmunity

  92. Havarinasab 2006 – Alteration of the spontaneous systemic autoimmune disease in (NZB x NZW)F1 mice by treatment with thimerosal (ethyl mercury)

  93. Heckler 1989 – The Sulphydryl Reagent Thimerosal Elicits Human Platelet Aggregation by Mobilization of Intracellular Calcium and Secondary Prostaglandin Endoperoxide Formation

  94. Herdman 2006 – Thimerosal Induces Apoptosis in a Neuroblastoma Model via the cJun N-Terminal Kinase Pathway

  95. Hewitson 2010 – Delayed Acquisition of Neonatal Reflexes in Newborn Primates Receiving a Thimerosal-Containing Hepatitis B Vaccine: Influence of Gestational Age and Birth Weight

  96. Hewitson 2010 – Influence of pediatric vaccines on amygdala growth and opioid ligand binding in rhesus macaque infants: A pilot study

  97. Heyworth 1979 – Problems associated with the use of merthiolate as a preservative in anti-lymphocytic globulin

  98. Hooker 2014 – Methodological Issues and Evidence of Malfeasance in Research Purporting to Show Thimerosal in Vaccines Is Safe

  99. Humphrey 2005 – Mitochondrial Mediated Thimerosal-Induced Apoptosis in a Human Neuroblastoma Cell Line (SK-N-SH)

  100. Hunter 2010 – Neuroligin-deficient mutants of C. elegans have sensory processing deficits and are hypersensitive to oxidative stress and mercury toxicity

  101. Ida-Eto 2011 – Embryonic exposure to thimerosal, an organomercury compound, causes abnormal early development of serotonergic neurons

  102. Ida-Eto 2013 – Prenatal exposure to organomercury, thimerosal, persistently impairs the serotonergic and dopaminergic systems in the rat brain: Implications for association with developmental disorders

  103. Islam 1993 – Sulfhydryl oxidation induces rapid and reversible closure of the ATP-regulated K channel in the pancreatic β-cell

  104. James 2004 – Thimerosal Neurotoxicity is Associated with Glutathione Depletion: Protection with Glutathione Precursors

  105. James 2009 – Cellular and mitochondrial glutathione redox imbalance in lymphoblastic cells derived from children with autism

  106. Jan 2003 – Oxidation by Thimerosal Increases Calcium Levels in Renal Tubular Cells

  107. Jin 2004-Thimerosal decreases TRPV1 activity by oxidation of extracellular sulfhydryl residues

  108. Kaplin 1994 – Purified Reconstituted Inositol 1,4,5-Triphosphate Receptors

  109. Karsen 2007 – Apparent vaccine-thimerosal induced hypersensitivity myelodysplastic syndrome and pancytopenia

  110. Kempuraj 2010 – Mercury induces inflammatory mediator release from human mast cells

  111. Kern 2012 – Evidence of parallels between mercury intoxication and the brain pathology in autism

  112. Kern 2015 – Systematic Assessment of Research on Autism Spectrum Disorder and Mercury Reveals Conflicts of Interest and the Need for Transparency in Autism Research

  113. Kern 2016 – The relationship between mercury and autism: A comprehensive review and discussion

  114. Khan 2012 – Sex-dependent Changes in Cerebellar Thyroid Hormone-dependent Gene Expression Following Perinatal Exposure to Thimerosal in Rats

  115. Kim 2002 – Thimerosal stimulates focal adhesion kinase and cytoskeletal changes by redox modulation

  116. Kramer 2004 – Mercury exposure in protein A immunoadsorption

  117. Lawton 2007 -Reduced tubulin tyrosination as an early marker of mercury toxicity in differentiating N2a cells

  118. Lee 2006 – Thimerosal induces oxidative stress in HeLa S epithelial cells

  119. Leventhal 2012 – Hypersensitivity Reactions to Vaccine Constituents: A Case Series and Review of the Literature

  120. Li 2012 – Thimerosal-Induced Apoptosis in Mouse C2C12 Myoblast Cells Occurs through Suppression of the P13K/Akt/ Surviving Pathway

  121. Li 2014 – Transcriptomic Analyses of Neurotoxic Effects in Mouse Brain After Intermittent Neonatal Administration of Thimerosal

  122. Loison 2014 – Suppression by Thimerosal of Ex-Vivo CD4 T Cell Response to Influenza Vaccine and Induction of Apoptosis in Primary Memory T Cells

  123. Loison 2014 – Thimerosal compromises human dendritic cell maturation, IL-12 production, chemokine release, and T-helper polarization

  124. Madi 2004 – Being on the Track of Thimerosal

  125. Magos 2001 – Review on the Toxicity of Ethylmercury, Including its Presence as a Preservative in Biological and Pharmaceutical Products

  126. Marques 2008 – Principal component analysis and discrimination of variables associated with pre- and post-natal exposure to mercury

  127. Marques 2009 – Prenatal and Postnatal Mercury Exposure, Breastfeeding and Neurodevelopment During the First 5 Years

  128. Marques 2010 – Thimerosal exposure (from tetanus-diphtheria) during pregnancy and neurodevelopment of breastfed infants at 6 months

  129. Marques 2014 – Perinatal multiple exposure to neurotoxic (lead, methylmercury, ethylmercury, and aluminum) substances and neurodevelopment at six and 24 months of age

  130. Marques 2016 – Neurodevelopment of Amazonian children exposed to ethylmercury (from Thimerosal in vaccines) and methylmercury (from fish)

  131. Matheson 1980 – Mercury toxicity (acrodynia) induced by long-term injection of gamma globulin

  132. Mercury Poisoning in Child Treated with Aqueous Merthiolate

  133. Migdal 2010 – Responsiveness of human monocyte-derived cells to thimerosal and mercury derivatives

  134. Miller 2005 – Thimerosal, micromercurialism and chronic fatigue syndrome

  135. Minami 2007 – Effects of lipopolysaccharide and chelator on mercury content in the cerebrum of thimerosal-administered mice

  136. Minami 2009 – Induction of metallothionein in mouse cerebellum and cerebrum with low-dose thimerosal injection

  137. Minami 2009-Expression of metallothionein mRNAs on mouse cerebellum microglia cells by thimerosal and its metabolites

  138. Muller 2001 – Inhibition of the human erythrocytic glutathione-S-transferase T1 (GST T1) by thimerosal

  139. Mutkus 2005 – In Vitro Uptake of Glutamate in GLAST- and GLT-1-Transfected Mutant CHO-K1 Cells Is Inhibited by the Ethylmercury-Containing Preservative Thimerosal

  140. Mutter 2006 – Comments on the Article “The Toxicology of Mercury and Its Chemical Compounds” by Clarkson and Magos

  141. Nguyen 2007 – Thimerosal-Induced Limbal Stem Cell Failure: Report of a Case and Review of the Literature

  142. Niehoff 2015 – Quantitative Bioimaging to Investigate the Uptake of Mercury Species in Drosophilia melanogaster

  143. Nishio 1996 – Effects of Thimerosal, an Organic Sulfhydryl Modifying Agent, on Serotonin Transport Activity into Rabbit Blood Platelets

  144. Ohno 2004 – Wide use of Merthiolate May Cause Mercury Poisoning in Mexico

  145. Olczak 2009 – Neonatal administration of a vaccine preservative, thimerosal, produces lasting impairment of nociception and apparent activation of opioid system in rats

  146. Olczak 2010 – Neonatal Administration of Thimerosal Causes Persistent Changes in Mu Opioid Receptors in the Rat Brain

  147. Olczak 2011 – Persistent behavioral impairments and alternations of brain dopamine system after early postnatal administration of thimerosal in rats

  148. Orct 2006 – Comparison of organic and inorganic mercury distribution of suckling rat

  149. Park 2007 – Evaluation of Cytotoxicity Attributed to Thimerosal on Murine and Human Kidney Cells

  150. Parran 2005 – Effects of Thimerosal on NGF Signal Transduction and Cell Death in Neuroblastoma Cells

  151. Peltz 2009 – Calcium and Calmodulin Regulate Mercury-induced Phospholipase D Activation in Vascular Endothelial Cells

  152. Pieper 2014 – Mechanisms of Hg species induced toxicity in cultured human astrocytes: genotoxicity and DNA-damage response

  153. Pintado 1994 – Effect of thimerosal and other sulfhydryl reagents on calcium permeability in thymus lymphocytes

  154. Pletz 2016 – Dose-response analysis indicating time-dependent neurotoxicity caused by organic and inorganic mercury–Implications for toxic effects in the developing brain

  155. Qvarnstrom 2003 – Determination of Methylmercury, Ethylmercury, and Inorganic Mercury in Mouse Tissues, Following Administration of Thimerosal, by Species-Specific Isotope Dilution GD-Inductively Coupled Plasma-MS

  156. Rampersad 2005 – Chemical compounds that target thiol-disulfide groups on mononuclear phagocytes inhibit immune mediated phagocytes of red blood cells

  157. Rempel 2015 – A transcriptome-based classifier to identify developmental toxicants by stem cell testing: design, validation and optimization for histone deacetylase inhibitors

  158. Risher 2002 – Organic mercury compounds: human exposure and its relevance to public health

  159. Risher 2016 – Alkyl Mercury-Induced Toxicity: Multiple Mechanisms of Action

  160. Rodrigues 2010 – Identification and distribution of mercury species in rat tissues following administration of thimerosal or methyl mercury

  161. Rodrigues 2015 – Toxicological effects of thimerosal and ethyl mercury: Inhibition of the thioredoxin system and NADP-dependent dehydrogenases of the pentose phosphate pathway

  162. Rohyans 1984 – Mercury toxicity following merthiolate ear irrigations

  163. Rooney 2016 – Mercury Levels in Newborns and Infants After Receipt of Thimerosal-Containing Vaccines

  164. Rosenblum 1992 – The Endothelium-Dependent Effects of Thimerosal on Mouse Dial Arterioles In Vivo: Evidence for Control Microvascular Events by EDRF as well as Prostaglandins

  165. Sajich 1999 – Iatrogenic exposure to mercury after hepatitis B vaccination in preterm infants

  166. Secor 2011 – Novel Lipid-Soluble Thiol-Redox Antioxidant and Heavy Metal Chelator, N,N’bis(2-Mercaptoethyl)Isopthalamide (NBMI) and Phospholipase D-Specific Inhibitor, 5-Fluoro-2-Indolyl Des-Chlorohalopemide (FIPE) Attenuate Mercury-Induced Lipid Signaling Leading to Protection Against Cytotoxicity in Aortic Endothelial Cells

  167. Sharpe 2012 – Thimerosal-Derived Ethylmercury is a Mitochondrial Toxin in Human Astrocytes: Possible Role of Fenton Chemistry in the Oxidation and Breakage of mtDNA

  168. Sharpe 2013 – B-Lymphocytes from a Population of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Unaffected Siblings Exhibit Hypersensitivity to Thimerosal

  169. Silbergeld 2008 – Mercury, vaccines, and autism, revisited

  170. Skalny 2016 – Mercury as a possible link between maternal obesity and autism spectrum disorder

  171. Stamogiannos 2016 – Screening Identifies Thimerosal as a Selective Inhibitor of Endoplasmic Reticulum Aminopeptidase 1

  172. Sulkowski 2011 – Maternal Thimerosal Exposure Results in Aberrant Cerebellar Oxidative Stress, Thyroid Hormone Metabolism, and Motor Behavior in Rat Pups; Sex- and Strain-Dependent Effects

  173. Suwalsky 2016 – Effects of Thimerosal on Lipid Bilayers and Human Erythrocytes: An In Vitro Study

  174. Tosti – Systemic reactions due to thimerosal

  175. Trumpler 2014 – In vitro study of thimerosal reactions in human whole blood and plasma surrogate samples

  176. Uchida 1994 – Thimerosal Induces Toxic Reaction in Non-Sensitized Animals

  177. Ueha-Ishibashi 2004 – Effect of thimerosal, a preservative in vaccines, on intracellular Ca2+ concentration of rat cerebellar neurons

  178. Ueha-Ishibashi 2004 – Property of thimerosal-induced decrease in cellular content of glutathione in rat thymocytes: a flow cut-metric study with 5-chloromethulfluorescein diacetate

  179. Van Horn 1977 – Effect of the ophthalmic preservative thimerosal on rabbit and human corneal endothelium

  180. van’t Veen 2001 – Vaccines without Thimerosal: Why So Necessary, Why So Long Coming?

  181. Waly 2004 – Activation of methionine synthase by insulin-like growth factor-1 and dopamine: a target for neurodevelopment toxins and thimerosal

  182. Waly 2016 – Alternatively Spliced Methionine Synthase in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells: Cobalamin and GSH Dependence and Inhibitory Effects of Neurotoxic Metals and Thimerosal

  183. Westphal 2000 – Homozygous gene deletion of the glutathione S-transferases M1 and T1 are associated with thimerosal sensitization

  184. Westphal 2003 – Thimerosal induces micronuclei in the cytochalasin B block micronucleus test with human lymphocytes

  185. Wong 2005 – A generalized reaction to thimerosal from an influenza vaccine

  186. Wu 2008 – Thiol-Modulated Mechanisms of the Cytotoxicity of Thimerosal and Inhibition of DNA Topoisomerase IIα

  187. Wyrembek 2010 – Intermingled Modulatory and Neurotoxic Effects of Thimerosal and Mercuric Ions on Electrophysiological Responses to GABA and NMDA in Hippocampal Neurons

  188. Ye 2012 – Cytoprotective effect of hyaluronic acid and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose against DNA damage induced by thimerosal in Chang conjunctival cells

  189. Yel 2005 – Thimerosal induces neuronal cell apoptosis by causing cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor release from mitochondria

  190. Young 2008 – Thimerosal exposure in infants and neurodevelopment disorders: An assessment of computerized medical records in the Vaccine Safety Datalink

  191. Zareba 2007 – Thimerosal distribution and metabolism in neonatal mice: comparison with methyl mercury

  192. Zieminska 2010 – Low molecular weight thiols reduce thimerosal neurotoxicity in vitro: Modulation by proteins

  193. Zieminska 2013 – Select putative neurodevelopment toxins modify SNAP-25 expression in primary cultures of rat cerebellar granule cells

  194. Zieminska 2016 – Select putative neurodevelopment toxins modify SNAP-25 expression in primary cultures of rat cerebellar granule cells


The article: Mercury/Thimerosal/Autism  originated on and is re-published on TLB by ‘contribution’ with attribution to  Childrens Health Defense.


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