By:  TLB Staff Writer  | David-William

July 10, 2016

Along with correction of status, is claiming your inheritance.  You are the secure creditor.  You are the shareholder.  You are the beneficiary.  The Crown Temple B.A.R. is a continuing criminal enterprise.  They’re out to rape and pillage for their own good, at our expense!




It’s very important for everyone to hear the content of this video.  Patrick Devine explains exactly how the criminal B.A.R. Courts commit high treason against America and the people.  These Pirates are out rob you and call you the criminal if you learn their game.  CORRECT YOUR STATUS!!!



The criminal B.A.R. Courts are corporate/commercial entities and they pretend their unlawful claims against you are based upon “criminal” offenses by you, when in fact, they’re the ones pretending as if you’re a “public servant” or “STATE OF…” EMPLOYEE.  Whenever the “plaintiff” in an alleged case is “STATE OF…”  they’re pretending you’re their EMPLOYEE in breach of contract.  This is high treason in an open court.  This is why all B.A.R. Attorners/Brokers in black robes should be wearing straightjackets.  They’re criminally insane sociopaths, foreign Agents of the Crown (Vatican).  They’re posting BONDS against your Estate.  


As explained in the video, report these despicable criminals to the I.R.S. and the Treasury.  Also, publish what they did as you use their own Codes against them.  This is no exaggeration!  The B.A.R. is a terrorist organization, perpetrating RICO level crimes.  


A defendant or defendants desiring to remove any civil action from a State court shall file in the district court of the United States for the district and division within which such action is pending a notice of removal signed pursuant to Rule 11 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure and containing a short and plain statement of the grounds for removal, together with a copy of all process, pleadings, and orders served upon such defendant or defendants in such action.
(b)Requirements; Generally.—
(1) The notice of removal of a civil action or proceeding shall be filed within 30 days after the receipt by the defendant, through service or otherwise, of a copy of the initial pleading setting forth the claim for relief upon which such action or proceeding is based, or within 30 days after the service of summons upon the defendant if such initial pleading has then been filed in court and is not required to be served on the defendant, whichever period is shorter.
(A) When a civil action is removed solely under section 1441(a), all defendants who have been properly joined and served must join in or consent to the removal of the action.
(B) Each defendant shall have 30 days after receipt by or service on that defendant of the initial pleading or summons described in paragraph (1) to file the notice of removal.
(C) If defendants are served at different times, and a later-served defendant files a notice of removal, any earlier-served defendant may consent to the removal even though that earlier-served defendant did not previously initiate or consent to removal.
(3) Except as provided in subsection (c), if the case stated by the initial pleading is not removable, a notice of removal may be filed within thirty days after receipt by the defendant, through service or otherwise, of a copy of an amended pleading, motion, order or other paper from which it may first be ascertained that the case is one which is or has become removable.
(c)Requirements; Removal Based on Diversity of Citizenship.—
(1) A case may not be removed under subsection (b)(3) on the basis of jurisdiction conferred by section 1332 more than 1 year after commencement of the action, unless the district court finds that the plaintiff has acted in bad faith in order to prevent a defendant from removing the action.
(2) If removal of a civil action is sought on the basis of the jurisdiction conferred by section 1332(a), the sum demanded in good faith in the initial pleading shall be deemed to be the amount in controversy, except that—
(A) the notice of removal may assert the amount in controversy if the initial pleading seeks—
(i) nonmonetary relief; or
(ii) a money judgment, but the State practice either does not permit demand for a specific sum or permits recovery of damages in excess of the amount demanded; and
(B) removal of the action is proper on the basis of an amount in controversy asserted under subparagraph (A) if the district court finds, by the preponderance of the evidence, that the amount in controversy exceeds the amount specified in section 1332(a).
(A) If the case stated by the initial pleading is not removable solely because the amount in controversy does not exceed the amount specified in section 1332(a), information relating to the amount in controversy in the record of the State proceeding, or in responses to discovery, shall be treated as an “other paper” under subsection (b)(3).
(B) If the notice of removal is filed more than 1 year after commencement of the action and the district court finds that the plaintiff deliberately failed to disclose the actual amount in controversy to prevent removal, that finding shall be deemed bad faith under paragraph (1).
(d)Notice to Adverse Parties and State Court.—
Promptly after the filing of such notice of removal of a civil action the defendant or defendants shall give written notice thereof to all adverse parties and shall file a copy of the notice with the clerk of such State court, which shall effect the removal and the State court shall proceed no further unless and until the case is remanded.
(e)Counterclaim in 337 Proceeding.—
With respect to any counterclaim removed to a district court pursuant to section 337(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, the district court shall resolve such counterclaim in the same manner as an original complaint under the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, except that the payment of a filing fee shall not be required in such cases and the counterclaim shall relate back to the date of the original complaint in the proceeding before the International Trade Commission under section 337 of that Act.
(g)  [1] Where the civil action or criminal prosecution that is removable under section 1442(a) is a proceeding in which a judicial order for testimony or documents is sought or issued or sought to be enforced, the 30-day requirement of subsection (b) of this section and paragraph (1) of section 1455(b) is satisfied if the person or entity desiring to remove the proceeding files the notice of removal not later than 30 days after receiving, through service, notice of any such proceeding.
(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 939; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, § 83, 63 Stat. 101; Pub. L. 89–215, Sept. 29, 1965, 79 Stat. 887; Pub. L. 95–78, § 3, July 30, 1977, 91 Stat. 321; Pub. L. 100–702, title X, § 1016(b), Nov. 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 4669; Pub. L. 102–198, § 10(a), Dec. 9, 1991, 105 Stat. 1626; Pub. L. 103–465, title III, § 321(b)(2), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4946; Pub. L. 104–317, title VI, § 603, Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3857; Pub. L. 112–51, § 2(c), Nov. 9, 2011, 125 Stat. 545; Pub. L. 112–63, title I, §§ 103(b), 104, Dec. 7, 2011, 125 Stat. 760, 762.)


The B.A.R. Attorners know you’re not the all caps JOHN H. DOE, but they make you think you are!  Prosecute their sorry butts forever.  They do what they do because everyone is asleep at the wheel, especially the Cops.  Why do you think they protect Cops?  It’s because the Cops are enforcing Commercial Code upon people who are not operating in commerce.  It’s 2016, and they can’t read?  Are they stupid, criminals, or stupid criminals?  Go figure!


Their lame excuse was that there might be high turnover if smarter people moved on to other jobs.  Imagine suing because you were too smart, and losing!?  

They don’t want anyone figuring out that they really work for the Foreign Agents in the Crown Temple B.A.R., and that they’re paying police to treat everyone as STATE EMPLOYEES!  


This paper discusses the recruiting and selection process within United States law enforcement agencies, the role of intelligence in police selection practices, and the potential impact of a U.S. District Court case in Connecticut where job opportunity was denied an applicant due to a high intelligence test score.

Abstract: Research suggests that some police departments across the United States are having difficulty recruiting officers to fill vacant positions despite their efforts to find and create better police officers. In the recent case of Jordan v. City of New London (2000)(Connecticut), a police applicant was denied employment due to scoring too high on the cognitive ability portion of his written application test. The importance of this case stems from its potential impact in three areas: (1) in a time of shrinking applications to police forces, legal decisions related to the selection process would appear significant; (2) the rejection of an applicant due to his /her high intelligence appears to create or reinforce negative stereotypes of police; and (3) the case involves employment law which is considered fertile ground for lawsuits against police. This paper explores this case in detail and its potential impact. Five areas related to the case are discussed: (1) research concerning the importance of intelligence in policing; (2) the constitutional provision of equal protection of the laws; (3) a review of the case of Jordan v. City of New London (2000); (4) the methodology and findings of a survey on the role of intelligence in policing; and (5) the practical and legal policy implications of the case.


Are you a “good cop?”  Do you enforce Commercial Code upon private travelers?  Do you know that your Codes are for Municipal Employees and those “Operating” as “Drivers” of “Motor Vehicles” in Commerce?  Are you too stupid and stubborn to know that when you put on your EMERGENCY LIGHTS for non-emergencies, to enforce Commercial Code, that YOU ARE THE ONE COMMITTING THE CRIME, for a paycheck!?!  Do you realize that makes you a MEAT PUPPET for the B.A.R. Association!?!  Do you know what “crime” means?  Do you know that if you arrive in court without a living, breathing injured party who wrote an affidavit demonstrating the harms done them, that you are a JACKASS criminal?  You didn’t know?  Or you don’t care?  

Now you know why they won’t hire anyone with a high I.Q. who’s capablee of critical thinking!  Dumbbells with barbells and guns and badges shoot unarmed people who question their STUPIDITY!  When was the last time you saw a fellow Cop break their own Commercial Code?  Did you arrest them?  NO????  Then you’re not a good Cop.  You’re a BAD COP!  OH!  The Masonic Fraternal Brotherhood of Police?!?  Run to the mirror and look at an outstanding member of the “100 Club.”  That means LOW I.Q. in case you were too much of a moron to figure it out by yourself!  You work to tax and persecute fellow Americans for the Crown, you BUFFOON!!!  Your job is to police PUBLIC SERVANTS, not people in the private who have injured no one!  That’s why YOU GOT HIRED!  Because you’re too STUPID to read!  Do you use the term “Sovereign Citizen?”  Did you ever wonder why the MOSSAD is training Police?  Is the alarm going off within that fluoridated brain on steroids yet?  Read below and see if you are or are not a critical thinker, today!  Pull up your pants, and be a man.  Stop screwing and harming Americans for the Crown Temple B.A.R.  This is why people laugh at you!  People don’t fear you because you have authority.  People fear you because you’re a trained chimpanzee with a gun and a license to commit crimes.  




Note to all people, when you have to navigate in the court rooms, know that these quasi-courts so called judges are really Magistrates or Administrators, and they are practicing Law over the bench and making legal determinations for the people, which is an absolute violation of due process of Law. Also know that there are only two courts, such as Criminal and Civil, there is no indices in the Constitution for Traffic Court, which means that every ticket they give you is illegal. So when you are in Criminal Court, there must be indictment papers before any acceptance of you of charges against you, in which most courts want you to take a plea, which is really to give up your rights. Why, because they know taking a plea involves signing papers of such which waive away your rights, and those papers take the place of indictment papers. Which they love this, because they know they have no lawful case against you, so without you knowing the Law and your Rights, then they can get away with violating your Constitutional Rights and be able to charge you upon something frivolous, by having you sign plea papers. Understand mainly, that there are No Lawyers for them to appoint for you, or for you to hire to represent you as they are a conflict of interest, because they are officers of the court.

One thing you want to always do, is not accept any “public defender” or “counsel” they may try to force upon you, why, because they know you will not have a true lawyer, because no true lawyer exists in their “Bar Association”, as they have been barred from exercising law and are only enforcing policies instead. See what the people must know is that, the “Legal” system of the United States, is controlled by the “Crown”, from London, and the “Crown” is really the Knights Templar Church, to whom your Baphomet worship you see these celebrities throwing up symbols of, are of. The Knights Templar Church, is also known as the Crown Temple or Crown Templar, and is located between Fleet Street and Victoria Embankment. The Crown Temple number 1, controls the Global “Legal” system, including those in the United States and Canada,, because all Bar Associations are franchises of the International Bar Association at the Inns of Court at Crown Temple based at Chancery Lane in London. All Bar Attorneys throughout the world pledge a solemn oath to the Temple, even though some may not be aware that this is what they are doing, because they’re only given an Inferior understanding of Law, enough to keep them brainwashed into the Temple’s agenda. The Bar is not a Constitutional establishment of the United States of America Republic, but rather its the British Association establishment, under the Knights Templar’s, who are controlled by the Rothschild banking family.

This is why the Bar Association “licensed” Attorneys must keep to their oath, pledge and terms of allegiance, to the Crown Temple, if they are to be “called to Bar” and work in the “Legal” profession. The Ruling Monarch is also subordinate to the Crown Temple, and has been since the reign of King John in the 13th century, when royal sovereignty was transferred to the Crown Temple, and through, was it transferred to the Roman Catholic Church. The government of the United States is not for the people by the people, its merely a subsidiary of the Crown Temple along with the U.S. Central bank known as the Federal Reserve, cause the “Global Banking System is controlled by the Crown Temple as well as the “Legal’ System. Bar Associations are awarded their franchises by the four Inns of Court at Temple Bar, in which these are the Inner Temple, Middle Temple, Lincoln’s Inn and Gray’s Inn and they are nothing less than exclusive secret societies without charters or statutes, thus making them a Law unto themselves.

The Middle Temple is the one that controls the “Legal System” for the United States, as where the Crown Temple owns America through the deception of those who have worn their allegiance by oath to the Middle Templar Bar. The Crown Bankers and their Middle Templar Attorneys rule America through unlawful contracts, unlawful taxes, and contract documents of false equity through debt deceit, all strictly enforced by their completely unlawful, but ‘legal’, Orders, Rules and Codes of the Crown Temple Courts, which really is the so-called ‘judiciary’ in America, because the Crown Temple holds the land titles and estate deeds to all of North America, they are the Inquisitionist’s that I was talking about in my other notes.

Seven Middle Inn Templar’s who had pledged an oath of allegiance to the Crown Temple (including Alexander Hamilton) were among the members of the Constitutional Convention who signed the completed ‘American Constitution’, to which your never told that copies of the American Constitution and the Declaration of Independence hang on the wall of the library of the Middle Temple in London because they were the force behind both of them. Then they love here in American schools to throw 1776 up as its Independence Day, while knowing it is the year that the Crown Colonies became legal Crown States, because the Declaration of Independence was a legal, not lawful, document. They never tell you that it was signed on both sides by representatives of the Crown Temple, and that legally it announced the status quo of the Crown Colonies to that of the new legal name called “States”. as direct possessive estates of the Crown.

The America people were deceived into thinking they were declaring lawful independence from the Crown, when really all that was really established that year, was government of estate possession legally. So that made all the North American States become Crown Templar possessions through their legal document, signed by their representation of both parties to the contract, known as the Constitution of the United States of America. Now you should understand clearly as to why if you want to become a lawyer here in the United States, you must take the BAR Exam, of the British Association, and also should be clear, as to why the hospitals here in America, operate on British Maritime Law, thus making each child born, property of the Queen.

So now you know the United States is controlled by the Knights Templar “Crown”, who are controlled by the Roman Pope, who himself is controlled by the quote on quote Illuminati, better known as the Banking Families. If you really wanted to get technical with it, you would discover the Crown which was passed from the Monarch to the Knights Templar, who govern Britain on behalf of the Roman Catholic Church, which really those who would own the Knights Templar’s who control the United States, would really be the ones through the Crown Temple owning the United States, and that would be the Mother of All Harlots known as the Roman Catholic Church, she own the United States, Canada, and all countries and Bar Associations controlled overtly or covertly by the Crown. She is the Mother of All Harlots, and the harlots would be all religions upon the face of the earth, they all are authorized to exist by her, cause they come from her. This is why the Peace Treaty between the American Colonies and the British Crown in 1783, stated:

“It having pleased the Divine Providence to dispose the hearts of the most serene and most potent Prince George the Third, by the grace of God, king of Great Britain, France and Ireland, defender of the faith, duke of Brunswick and Lunebourg, arch-treasurer and prince elector of the Holy Roman Empire etc., and of the United States of America … “

So now you know why lawyers are so crooked, and the legal system is so corrupt, because its not Just Us that is established, but rather Just This (Justice). The American Bar Association was founded by the Rothschild banking family in 1879, in Indiana. All members of the two Judiciary and 71% of all legislatures, federal, state and local, are Bar Association members. This places at least two branches of the government under their control, which makes this a conflict of interest. Why, because lawyers have a stake in writing bad laws, because good laws don’t make them much money, because good laws tend to be obeyed, as where bad laws, are not. Did you know that the very first law passed by the Indiana legislature, after its takeover by the Bar Association, was to prohibit private citizens (laymen) from practicing law? This was an unconstitutional ruling designed to create a monopoly over the interpretation of law and the manner of its practice. Every lawyer under the Bar Association is party to imposing a foreign jurisdiction in almost every courtroom in the country, making the United States Constitution unavailable, and the people’s Constitutional Rights inaccessible to them as Americans. This is treason against the people and Constitution of the United States to the highest degree, they are operating under the same jurisdiction complained about in the Declaration of Independence, that King George was imposing a “jurisdiction foreign to our soil”.

These lawyers under the Bar Association whether they know it or not, are in the business of taking away Constitutional Rights from sovereign citizens and giving their power to a foreign banking family. You might have family members who have become apart of the Bar, trust me, if their so called Black or African American, then they are truly wearing blinders, they ignorant of this to the highest degree. They have been brainwashed in law school to think they are performing a public service, they are unconscious of their crimes, but when they become conscious of what they have gotten themselves into really, they better break their oath and repent, before they end up burning in hell. The Bar Association is also charged with generating laws and codes which serve Rothschild interests, which include a number of large corporations and whole industries, in which the Rothschilds and their associate bankers have invested, in which these include drug companies, oil companies, insurance companies, educational institution, religion, medical industry, auto and munitions manufacturers, and the mass media.

The Bar Association Lawyers have taken every measure to obfuscate the law, by creating a whole new language, which although it sounds, like English, the definitions of words may differ tremendously. They have created non-laws outside the scope of the Constitution, and often enforced with more vigor and stiffer penalties than legitimate law. They have even conspired to change laws by changing existing legal definitions, without legislation. For this reason, old editions of Black’s Law Dictionary from prior to 1930, have become extremely valuable, and because the Bar Association has established a total monopoly over the interpretation and manner of practice of law, they can, as an organization, commit any crimes, perpetuate any scams, upon the american public with total impunity.

So understand that when a court “forces” a “lawyer” (or Public Defender) upon you, as your counsel of “choice”, against your will, you must “Object, cause failure to “Object”, waives your Objection. So you must “Protest”, cause failure to protest waives your Protest. You must make an inquiry of the potential “Lawyer”, “ask him if he is aware that for every Law or Code Title and section number, there must be a “Remedy” provided by the Legislature? If he says “No”, disqualify him as “unqualified and incompetent” because he does not know the Law or Code “Remedies’, by his own admission. If he says “Yes”, ask him “Will you tell me what the “Remedy” is, so that I will not be found “Guilty” of this charge? Please know that he will not definitely say “Yes”, because he would be “Disbarred” if he did. But give him about 60 seconds to bumble about, and then say to the Court, “This man is clearly unqualified to represent me Your Honor, I reject him as incompetent, ineffective, and insufficient Counsel”. After they have gone through a few “Lawyers” this way, the judge will usually become frustrated, because he realized they can NOT find a “Lawyer” that will be “effective Counsel”, and that you will not be tricked into “acceptance” of any “Court Appointed” Officer, due to “ineffective assistance of Counsel”, and they usually drop the charges.

They may “give” you time to find an attorney, to which you return and say: I have tried and tried, yet every attorney I have spoken to has a “Conflict of Interest” because he has sworn an “Oath” to support my (corporate fiction STATE) ‘Adversary’, furthermore I was unable to fine one who was not an “Esquire” and apparently the attorneys I attempted to interview are unregistered foreign agents wherefore, I fear for the danger of being charged criminally for acting in collusion with unregistered foreign agents since there is no way to know how many laws they might break.

You might be wondering what is this “Esquire”, well understand that even before the founding of the American Bar Association, lawyers were granted a title of nobility, which was called “Esquire”, by the Rothschild family. This was so scandalous in the early 1800’s, that an amendment was ratified to make it a felony for anyone in government to hold a title of nobility. So efforts were immediately made, to bury the new amendment and destroy all traces and records of it from the law books and history books. Since evidence has now reached the surface in this to this amendment, lawyers all over continue to deny its existence, for the sole reason that it threatens to expose every single lawyer in the United States, as a traitor to the United States. Cause as you have seen so far in this lesson, is that every lawyer bears a title of nobility, and they are a party to imposing foreign jurisdiction in almost every courtroom in the country, making the United States Constitution unavailable, and the people’s Constitutional Rights inaccessible to them as Americans, which this is treason against the people and Constitution of the United States of America Republic.

As was said earlier, the judge will “give” you time to find an attorney, so in your “search” for an attorney, be sure to ask him or her the following questions below to help you determine their competency, in which you will see, they are not competent. If you take these questions and write them up in a word file on your computer and print them off and have them to fill them out, then you have a paper trail to utilize if they don’t, you have a refusal to do so, and that is still a documented course of events that you can utilize as proof of your position that can be necessary to the courts to prove further the attorney’s incompetence.


1. Do you carry malpractice insurance? If so, may I have a copy of your policy or the name of the carriers and the policy number?

2. How much experience have you had defending a case involving:___________________________________________
and how many cases have you won? References: names & phone #

3. For “appointed counsel”, Exactly what are your fiduciary duties to me as a third party recipient of your services?

4. Please define in writing over your signature the following legal issues:

a. What is the legal character of the defendant?
1. Business entity _________ Sole proprietorship [Individual] ______
2. Partnership entity _______ Estate _________ Trust _______
3. Corporation _______ Association _______
4. Manufacturer _______ Distributor __________ Common Carrier ________

b. Where is that legal person registered?

5. Please answer in writing over your signature the following questions:

a. What is your legal theory of defense?
b. Where is the court of original jurisdiction located?
c. Who or what is the principal party in interest?
d. What is the body of law from which the rule of law is to be drawn?
Please include all Titles of the United States Codes relative to or ancillary to the charges.

6. Do you or any member of your trade association have a financial interest of any kind whatsoever in the proceedings before the court? Please explain any potential conflict of interest in writing over your signature?

7. If you are a foreign agent of any kind, by any association or practice, where is your registration of foreign agent status filed?

8. Are you aware that defense counsel appointed in a federal criminal proceeding pursuant to federal statute cannot claim any “official” immunity under federal law in a malpractice action growing out of it?

Always ask these questions which will prove they are incompetent, and always deny their appointed legal counsel as aforementioned. Remember you have the right to your own counsel, as noted in the Constitution of the United States Republic. Make sure you are in proper person (in propria persona) and in a “Lawful” Court room, is the question. If you take a plea in these courts, without due process of law, you admit jurisdiction and they automatically ignore a trial by jury, thus violating your rights of due process, which is their intent anyway, either because they see you as a fictitious person, who has no rights; not a natural person who is entitled to due process; or because they don’t have a “lawful case on you in the first place”. As I told you in other notes, they are bound.

Officer’s Oath

All politicians and Officers of the Courts of The Republic United States of America, and all Federal and Military Officers, and all State and Municipal Officers, Sheriffs, Mayors, Councilmen, Freeholders and Policeman, etc., are bound by Law to support and defend the Constitution. The following is an example of the standard Oath which all the above, etc., must take for the public record.

“I, ______________ do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support and defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; that I take this obligation freely, without mental reservation or purpose of evasions; and that I will well and faithfully discharge the duties of the office on which I am about to enter. So help me God.”

Each Justice, Judge and Justice of the Peace shall, before entering upon the duties of office, take and subscribe an Oath that he will support the Constitution of the United States and the Constitution of the State Republic to which he or she is a citizen or member; and that he or she will faithfully and impartially discharge his or her office to the best of his or her ability. The oaths of all Judges of the courts, inferior to the superior court, and the Oaths of Justices of the Peace shall be filed in the Office of the County Recorder; and the Oaths of all other Justice and Judges shall be filed in the Office of the Secretary of State. Also know that when asking for the Oath of the Judge at the local court level, they may give you a hard time and say they don’t have it, in which this is because they don’t want you to have it. They are not used to people asking for it, yet it is public information and they usually have a copy and generally ought not have any reason not to supply it to you. The technicality is that the Judges Oaths are filed at the Country level, therefore you may have to write to them, or go to them for a copy. In closing I say know yourself, in doing so you know Law, and declare your Nationality, and stand not only for yourself against the Powers That Be, but also for the ignorant of the masses, shalom.



(a)Definitions.—In this chapter, the following definitions apply:
The term “aircraft” means a civil, military, or public contrivance invented, used, or designed to navigate, fly, or travel in the air.
(2)Aviation quality.—
The term “aviation quality”, with respect to a part of an aircraft or space vehicle, means the quality of having been manufactured, constructed, produced, maintained, repaired, overhauled, rebuilt, reconditioned, or restored in conformity with applicable standards specified by law (including applicable regulations).
(3)Destructive substance.—
The term “destructive substance” means an explosive substance, flammable material, infernal machine, or other chemical, mechanical, or radioactive device or matter of a combustible, contaminative, corrosive, or explosive nature.
(4)In flight.—The term “in flight” means—
(A) any time from the moment at which all the external doors of an aircraft are closed following embarkation until the moment when any such door is opened for disembarkation; and
(B) in the case of a forced landing, until competent authorities take over the responsibility for the aircraft and the persons and property on board.
(5)In service.—The term “in service” means—
(A) any time from the beginning of preflight preparation of an aircraft by ground personnel or by the crew for a specific flight until 24 hours after any landing; and
(B) in any event includes the entire period during which the aircraft is in flight.
(6)Motor vehicle.—
The term “motor vehicle” means every description of carriage or other contrivance propelled or drawn by mechanical power and used for commercial purposes on the highways in the transportation of passengers, passengers and property, or property or cargo.
The term “part” means a frame, assembly, component, appliance, engine, propeller, material, part, spare part, piece, section, or related integral or auxiliary equipment.
(8)Space vehicle.—
The term “space vehicle” means a man-made device, either manned or unmanned, designed for operation beyond the Earth’s atmosphere.
The term “State” means a State of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States.
(10)Used for commercial purposes.—
The term “used for commercial purposes” means the carriage of persons or property for any fare, fee, rate, charge or other consideration, or directly or indirectly in connection with any business, or other undertaking intended for profit.

(b)Terms Defined in Other Law.—
In this chapter, the terms “aircraft engine”, “air navigation facility”, “appliance”, “civil aircraft”, “foreign air commerce”, “interstate air commerce”, “landing area”, “overseas air commerce”, “propeller”, “spare part”, and “special aircraft jurisdiction of the United States” have the meanings given those terms in sections 40102(a) and 46501 of title 49.
(Added July 14, 1956, ch. 595, § 1, 70 Stat. 538; amended Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §§ 1010, 2013(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2141, 2187; Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, § 7015, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4395; Pub. L. 103–272, § 5(e)(1), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1373; Pub. L. 106–181, title V, § 506(b), Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 136.)


A motor vehicle is a self-propelled road vehicle and off-road vehicle , commonly wheeled, that does not operate on rails, such as trains or trams and used for commercial purposes on the highways in the transportation of passengers, or passengers and property.


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