Each year, tens of millions of American children are vaccinated according to the vaccination schedule set forth by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The current CDC schedule recommends over 25 vaccines by the time a child reaches two years of age. (1) The majority of the parents of these children follow the advice of their physicians and the CDC, which state that vaccines are both safe and effective and that, in order to protect hundreds of millions of individuals against disease, we must follow their recommendations.
Our medical authorities assure us that they would never allow our children to be exposed to something unproven or known to be dangerous. They claim that vaccines, even when multiple injections are given on a single day, are safe and do “not cause any chronic health problems.” (2) Further, they claim that the ingredients contained in vaccines are either harmless or found in such miniscule quantities that they pose no health risks. The medical establishment also states unequivocally that there is no connection between vaccination and the rising incidence of autism spectrum disorder. Anyone who questions the safety of vaccination is immediately labeled as irresponsible or a quack who subscribes to pseudoscience.
Given that vaccines are mandatory for most children in public schools, it makes sense that they should be scientifically proven to be safe. However, in a careful analysis of thousands of articles in the peer-reviewed literature on toxicology and immunology, nowhere can we find evidence for these claims on vaccine safety are based upon a gold standard of clinical research: long-term, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies.
What is glaringly absent is research examining the cumulative toxicological impact of the CDC vaccine schedule over a long period of time. Never has a concise epidemiological study been published that compares the long-term health outcomes of a group of infants and children given the recommended CDC immunization schedule and a cohort of unvaccinated children. Since such research has never been carried out, our medical officials are relying on inconclusive research that is not science-based in order to create public health policy. American parents, meanwhile, are conditioned by our medical officials to bring their children in for regular vaccinations, confusing pure propaganda with scientific proof.
All humans possess a unique biochemistry that makes them more or less susceptible to various types of toxins. Whereas one child may be left with a compromised immune system after exposure to an environmental toxin, another child may experience learning problems or mild brain defects. Vaccine safety is not proved by stating the obvious – that not every child who receives the standard CDC vaccine schedule has autism. As we witness a rapidly increasing number of vaccinated children being afflicted by conditions such as autism, food allergies, encephalitis, type 1 diabetes, and Crohn’s disease, it’s critical that we investigate further the role played by environmental toxins to better understand their pathology. And when we look into the independent science on the safety of vaccines, it’s readily apparent that many of the ingredients found in vaccines are toxic, even in small amounts, and may contribute to a range of illnesses, including autism.
Here we will also take an uncompromising look at the institutions and individuals claiming that vaccines are safe for our children. We’ll find that just a brief review of our medical establishment reveals evidence of a corrupt network riddled with conflicts of interest and scandal, making it clear that we simply cannot trust our health officials on the issue of vaccine safety.
The Toxic Ingredients in Vaccines
What follows is an incomplete listing of scientific studies showing the dangers of common ingredients in vaccines. I am only citing a handful of examples from the scientific literature. Additional studies appear at the end of this document under “Supplementary Studies”.
Thimerosal is an ethyl mercury-containing compound that was, up until recently, widely used in vaccines as a preservative. More than 165 studies have found Thimerosal to be harmful to human health. (3) Mercury exposure has been associated with nerve cell degeneration, adverse behavioral effects, and impaired brain development. (4) It also has been linked to degenerative chronic conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease. The developing fetal nervous system is the most sensitive to its toxic effects, and prenatal exposure to high doses of mercury has been shown to cause mental retardation and cerebral palsy. (5,6)
Despite a preponderance of evidence showing Thimerosal’s toxicity, the CDC maintains its position that Thimerosal is generally safe in small doses, citing a handful of CDC-sponsored epidemiological studies. One study found evidence of significant “methodological issues and “malfeasance” in their reporting. (7) Even though vaccine manufacturers have phased out the use of Thimerosal in most vaccines, some vaccines on the market today, including influenza, DTaP and DTaP-Hib, still contain Thimerosal. (8,9)
In a 2010 study published in the journal Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis, researchers at the University of Northern Iowa evaluated dozens of studies that claimed to refute the relationship between autism and exposure to toxic metals such as mercury, found in vaccines. The analysis uncovered that several of these studies used erroneous statistics and faulty methodologies to derive their conclusions and that in fact, evidence suggests that the vaccine-autism link should not be dismissed by the scientific community. (10)
A 2004 study conducted by Northwestern University Pharmacy professor Richard Deth and researchers from the University of Nebraska, Tufts and Johns Hopkins University found that Thimerosal and other toxins contained in vaccines disrupt the biochemical process of methylation in the human body. Methylation plays a significant role in normal DNA function and neurological growth in infants and children. The group’s findings suggest that toxicants introduced through vaccinations contribute to conditions such as autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. (11)
The Thimerosal-autism connection is bolstered by the research of Dr. Boyd Haley, who served as the chairman of the University of Kentucky’s Department of Chemistry and spent three years as a NIH post-doctoral scholar at Yale University Medical School’s Department of Physiology. Haley’s research has identified mercury, even in minute amounts, to be a dangerous immunosuppressant that damages neurological function and is a major contributor to autism spectrum disorder. Dr. Haley’s scientific inquiries have provided strong evidence documenting how ethylmercury inhibits the process of phagocytosis (a critically important biological process of the human immune system), impairs the function of dendritic neurons in the brain and hinders the production of methyl B12. Each of these processes are significant factors in the onset of neurological illness. (12)
In a study published in the Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health in July 2011, Australian authors David Austin and Kerrie Shandley surveyed a group of adults who were survivors of Pink Disease or Infantile Acrodynia, an ailment historically caused by exposure to mercury found in teething powder, diaper rinses and other materials. Since the survivors of Pink Disease were proven to be sensitive to mercury, the study set out to determine whether or not higher rates of autism were present among the survivors’ grandchildren. Austin and Shandley demonstrated that 1 in 25 of the survivors’ grandchildren had some form of autism spectrum disorder. The frequency of autism among children in the general population of Australia in the same age group as those surveyed is 1 in 160. The results unequivocally suggest that children with a family history of susceptibility to mercury poisoning are far more likely to develop autism. (13)
Aluminum is an adjuvant, a chemical booster added to vaccines to induce an immune response. Most vaccines in the CDC schedule contain an aluminum compound. Furthermore, there is a large body of scientific research to support a connection between aluminum and neurotoxicity.
The alarming health consequences of aluminum were reported in a 2011 study published in the Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry led by Dr. Lucija Tomljenovic at the University of British Columbia. The study revealed that rates of autism spectrum disorder among children are greater in countries where children are exposed to the highest amounts of aluminum in vaccines. The authors also noted “the increase in exposure to Al [aluminum] adjuvants significantly correlates with the increase in ASD [autism spectrum disorder] prevalence in the United States observed over the last two decades”. (14) An additional article by Dr. Tomljenovic, and published in a 2014 issue of the journal Immunotherapy, discussed the neurotoxic effects of aluminum on the central nervous system. The article mentions the role played by the metal in triggering autoimmune and inflammatory responses, altering genetic expression and contributing to neurodevelopmental disorders. (15)
These findings are further supported by MIT researcher Dr. Stephanie Seneff. Seneff’s scientific investigation into the pathology of autism has turned up evidence that the neurotoxicity of aluminum is greatly increased when combined with glyphosate, Monsanto’s very widely used pesticide which is sprayed on crops around the world. Seneff posits that not only do these two agents combine to promote neurodevelopmental conditions but can also disrupt the gut’s microbiome, potentially leading to leaky gut syndrome, kidney failure, and other serious complications. (16)
It is worth noting that the federal health agencies have admitted to the many dangers posed by aluminum exposure, such as the 357 page document titled “Toxicological Profile for Aluminum” released in 2008 by the Department of Health and Human Services’ Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. The document, which was thoroughly vetted by CDC scientists, states:
There is a rather extensive database on the oral toxicity of aluminum in animals. These studies clearly identify the nervous system as the most sensitive target of aluminum toxicity and most of the animal studies have focused on neurotoxicity and neurodevelopmental toxicity. (17)
Despite the government’s tacit recognition of aluminum’s health risks, the CDC and other federal agencies have made no effort to further investigate the cumulative toxicological impact of the current vaccine schedule.
Formaldehyde is a naturally occurring metabolite commonly added to bacterial and viral vaccines. According to the FDA “It is used to inactivate viruses so that they don’t cause disease (e.g., polio virus used to make polio vaccine) and to detoxify bacterial toxins, such as the toxin used to make diphtheria vaccine.”(18) Though formaldehyde may neutralize potentially harmful pathogens in vaccines, the World Health Organization lists it as a “known human carcinogen.”
According to a report by the US’s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), ingesting “formaldehyde can be fatal, and long-term exposure to low levels in the air or on the skin can cause asthma-like respiratory problems and skin irritation such as dermatitis and itching.” The report also cites formaldehyde as “a cancer hazard”. (19) More evidence suggests formaldehyde exhibits neurotoxic properties as well (20)
The response from our health officials is that formaldehyde is contained in such small doses in vaccines that it doesn’t threaten human health. However, there is a conspicuous lack of research into the effects of formaldehyde exposure through multiple vaccines in pediatric populations. Given that infants and small children possess a much greater sensitivity to toxins compared to adults and that formaldehyde is introduced to children through immunizations containing a host of other toxic ingredients, it is crucial that we reevaluate its use in vaccines.
Monosodium Glutamate (MSG)
Monosodium glutamate, also known as MSG, has been used as a food additive for over a century, imparting a savory flavor that appeals to many people. It has also made its way into vaccines. Dr. Russell Blaylock notes that MSG is classified as an excitotoxin, or a compound which over stimulates cell receptors to such an extent that the cell ceases to function normally, resulting in damage to nerve cells and contributing to seizures. (21)
Animal and Human DNA
Animal and even human tissues are used as a culture medium to grow the targeted virus or bacteria used in vaccines. Today, vaccine viruses are cultured in chicken fibroblast cells and embryos, chick retinal and kidney cells, monkey and dog kidney cells, aborted human fetal lung fibroblast cells and mouse brain tissue, to name a few. (22) In 2013, the FDA approved the use of insect cells instead of chicken eggs for the influenza vaccine.
Unfortunately, viral filtration of the substrate that will be used in the vaccine is a primitive manufacturing process. A significant amount of foreign DNA and genetic debris from the culture finds its way into the vaccine that is eventually administered to children. DNA fragments can recombine with our body’s host cells thereby triggering undesirable autoimmune reactions. Considering the exponential increase in autoimmune diseases over the past 25 years, it is reasonable to suspect that the large amount of foreign genetic debris injected into our bodies is wreaking havoc with natural immune functions. There are also instances of certain vaccines causing a specific autoimmune response, such as a Haemophilus influenza B vaccine and type 1 diabetes association, and a Hepatitis B-Multiple Sclerosis relationship, which were observed after widespread administration of these vaccines. (23,24,25)
Polysorbate 80 is a chemical agent used as an emulsifier in vaccines. Research suggests that exposure to polysorbate 80 can “cause severe nonimmunologic anaphylactoid reactions.” (26) Another study found a connection between this substance and Crohn’s disease. (27)
A type of detergent used in some flu vaccines, Triton X-100 has been found to promote cell death and cause intestinal damage in animal studies. (28, 29)
Phenol is a type of preservative commonly used in vaccines. A study looking into the viability of preservatives in vaccines noted that phenol, like Thimerosal, is neurotoxic. The authors suggested that “(f)uture formulations of US-licensed vaccines/biologics should be produced in aseptic manufacturing plants as single dose preparations, eliminating the need for preservatives and an unnecessary risk to patients.” (30)
The compound known as 2-Phenoxyethoanol is commonly used as an antibacterial agent in vaccines. Among its known . Reports link this chemical to kidney, liver, and neurological toxicity. (31)
Real Science Indicting Vaccines and How it Has Been Suppressed
If good quality science exists that could discredit the pro-vaccine argument that there is no connection to autism, it is completely understandable that the media and the government and industry and scientists for hire continue their unrelenting attack on independent scientists, physicians, and most importantly, upon the victims themselves. To acknowledge that the entire vaccine program is unsupported by gold standard science would mean massive lawsuits, congressional investigations and discrediting the CDC, the FDA, US public health services and pharmaceutical companies. In effect, this could be the largest public health scandal in American history, and the public would be very unforgiving. Let’s now take a look at more damning evidence linking vaccines with autism and neurodevelopmental disease and the systemic suppression of this evidence.
1. Scientists at the University of Pittsburgh investigated the effects of vaccination on the neurodevelopment of baby macaque monkeys. The monkeys were given a course of vaccinations typical of the 1990s vaccine schedule. In comparison with the control group, vaccinated monkeys displayed abnormal patterns of brain growth and dysfunction of the amygdala – both strong indicators of autism when they appear in children. (32)
2. In 2002, the Journal of Biomedical Science published research carried out by scientists at Utah State University’s Department of Biology analyzing the effects of the MMR vaccine on the central nervous system. In their evaluation, the group discovered that autistic children who receive the MMR possess a higher titer of certain antibody related to measles. These antibodies trigger an abnormal autoimmune response that effectively damages the brain’s myelin sheath. Evidence suggests that such damage to the myelin sheath may impair normal brain activities and cause autism. (33)
3. The University of California San Diego and San Diego State University published a study showing a higher incidence of autism among children who were given the MMR vaccine and subsequently took acetaminophen or Tylenol. Their findings were published in the medical journal Autism. (34)
4. Through the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program (VICP), a federal program charged with the responsibility of financially compensating families of individuals injured or killed by vaccines, the US government has all but admitted to the connection between vaccines, neurological disorders and autism. A detailed research study appearing in the Pace Environmental Law Review in March 2011 revealed that the VICP has been quietly compensating 83 families for cases of vaccine-induced encephalopathy and residual seizure disorder associated with autism. In 21 of these cases, the word “autism” is actually used in court documents to describe the injuries that resulted from vaccination. The obvious conclusion is that, in paying these claims, the government has implicitly acknowledged a link between vaccination and autism. (35)
5. A recent report from the Department of Justice showed that within a three month period from November 2014- February 2015, 117 vaccine-induced injuries and deaths were compensated by VICP. The majority of the injuries listed in the report were caused by the flu vaccine and the most common injury linked to the flu vaccine was Guillain-Barré Syndrome, an uncommon illness in which the immune system attacks and damages the body’s neurons, sometimes resulting in permanent nerve damage or even death. (36)
Why Our Health Officials Can’t Be Trusted
Research indicates that conflicts of interest abound in the vaccine industry, making it difficult to have faith in our health authorities. (37) Worse still, evidence points to pervasive corruption among high profile individuals and institutions in the medical-industrial complex. Here we will look at some of the most alarming examples.
In June 2000, a group of top federal scientists, health officials, the CDC, the FDA, the British Health ministry and representatives from the pharmaceutical industry gathered for a secret meeting convened by the CDC at the Simpsonwood retreat center in Norcross, Georgia. Officially titled the Scientific Review of Vaccine Safety Datalink Information, the Simpsonwood conference reviewed the findings of a large epidemiological study evaluating any relationship between Thimerosal and autism. The meeting was not open to the public and was subject to a complete news embargo. Thanks to a Freedom of Information Act request filed by Robert F. Kennedy Jr., a transcript of the meeting became available.
The transcript revealed how health officials engaged in a cold-blooded cover-up of scientific evidence linking Thimerosal use in vaccine with a large spike in autism rates and other neurological illnesses. (38) The director of the Datalink study, CDC epidemiologist Dr. Tom Verstraeten, was quoted as saying, “I was actually stunned by what I saw,” citing the staggering number of earlier studies that indicate a link between Thimerosal and speech delays, attention deficit disorder, hyperactivity and autism. According to the transcript, Dr. John Clements, then the vaccines advisor at the World Health Organization, stated in the that “perhaps this study should not have been done at all.” (39) RFK Jr. recounted in an article the lengths to which our medical establishment went prevent the scientific findings from reaching the public sphere:
The CDC paid the Institute of Medicine to conduct a new study to whitewash the risks of thimerosal, ordering researchers to “rule out” the chemical’s link to autism. It withheld Verstraeten’s findings, even though they had been slated for immediate publication, and told other scientists that his original data had been “lost” and could not be replicated. And to thwart the Freedom of Information Act, it handed its giant database of vaccine records over to a private company, declaring it off-limits to researchers. By the time Verstraeten finally published his study in 2003, he had gone to work for GlaxoSmithKline and reworked his data to bury the link between thimerosal and autism. (40)
Gerberding: The Vaccine Insider
There is a revolving door between the vaccine manufacturers and those in government who are responsible for overseeing these manufacturers. A prime example is former CDC director Dr. Julie Gerberding, who left the agency in 2010 to take a position with pharmaceutical giant Merck as the President of the company’s vaccine division. Gerberding stated in an interview that she is “very bullish on vaccines”. (41) Her admission is especially disconcerting given her long history of siding with vaccine makers. While in her position at the CDC, the organization was found to be massively exaggerating the threat of the H1N1 swine flu, and pushing largely unproven vaccines on the American public with dangerous side effects. (42)
Despite her clear alliance with Big Pharma, Dr. Julie Gerberding strongly implied a vaccine-autism link during a 2008 interview with CNN’s Sanjay Gupta while serving as the CDC’s director. Gerberding stated:
Well, you know, I don’t have all the facts because I still haven’t been able to review the case files myself. But my understanding is that the child has a — what we think is a rare mitochondrial disorder. And children that have this disease, anything that stresses them creates a situation where their cells just can’t make enough energy to keep their brains functioning normally. Now, we all know that vaccines can occasionally cause fevers in kids. So if a child was immunized, got a fever, had other complications from the vaccines. And if you’re predisposed with the mitochondrial disorder, it can certainly set off some damage. Some of the symptoms can be symptoms that have characteristics of autism. (43)
Thorsen: A Case of Corruption
A prime example of the corruption within the CDC around vaccine safety is the case of Dr. Poul Thorsen, a Danish researcher who coauthored 36 CDC studies, two of which are widely cited studies claiming to disprove an autism-vaccine link. From 2004 to 2010 Thorsen allegedly laundered more than $1 million in grant money allocated for research and used the funds to make personal purchases, including a home in Atlanta. (44) Thorsen is currently in Denmark awaiting extradition to the United States.
In a recent editorial, Robert F. Kennedy called into question the slow nature of US authorities in apprehending Thorsen stating that:
The fact that he is roaming free and is easy to find, despite the US Federal indictment, does not imply Thorsen’s innocence… Rather it suggests a lack of enthusiasm by HHS and CDC to press for his capture and extradition. The agency undoubtedly fears that a public trial would expose the pervasive corruption throughout CDC’s vaccine division and the fragility of the science supporting CDC’s claims about Thimerosal safety. (45)
The two autism-vaccine studies undertaken by Thorsen and his team have been decried by critics as scientific fraud. According to leaked CDC documents, the data from one of the studies, which monitored rates of autism in Denmark after a country-wide phase out of Thimerosal, were heavily manipulated to make it appear that autism rates increased its removal from vaccines, when in fact rates decreased. The research’s methodology was so unscientific that journals such as The Lancet and The Journal of the American Medical Association rejected publishing the study, and it wasn’t until a CDC director wrote a strongly-worded letter to staff at the journal Pediatrics, that the research was actually published. (46)
The other autism-vaccine study coauthored by Thorsen, which seemingly debunked an autism link to the MMR vaccine was published in 2002. In his aforementioned editorial, Robert Kennedy Jr. wrote about the study’s questionable methodology:
That study employed CDC’s trademark ruse of including many children who were too young to receive the autism diagnosis, which at that point usually occurred at age four. CDC epidemiologists have consistently used this ploy in their phony autism studies to dampen the autism signal and exonerate the vaccine.The 2002 Madsen et al. MMR study also included a substantial number of unvaccinated children and employed a suite of other statistical gimmicks to mask the association with the MMR vaccine. (47)
The Thompson Revelation
In 2014, a senior scientist at the CDC, Dr. William Thompson, went public with claims that he and his colleagues willfully omitted data from a study that supported a link between vaccines and autism. After discovering a connection between the MMR vaccine and an increased risk of autism among African American males under 36 months of age, Thompson claims that he and his fellow authors chose to exclude these data and effectively perpetrated scientific fraud by publishing research which contradicted their actual research conclusions. (48) Commenting on how he and his colleagues misrepresented their findings, Thompson stated that:
…we decided to exclude reporting any race effects, the co-authors scheduled a meeting to destroy documents related to the study. The remaining four co-authors all met and brought a big garbage can into the meeting room and reviewed and went through all the hard copy documents that we had thought we should discard and put them in a huge garbage can. However, because I assumed it was illegal and would violate both FOIA and DOJ requests, I kept hard copies of all documents in my office and I retained all associated computer files. I believe we intentionally withheld controversial findings from the final draft of the Pediatrics paper. (49)
In 2015, Representative Bill Posey entered a statement by Thompson about the cover-up into the Congressional record. (50)
In an interview last year, Congressman Posey commented on the “intentionally evasive” behavior of CDC spokesperson on vaccines and autism, Dr. Colleen Boyle while he questioned saying:
I asked her a very direct question. ‘Have you done a study comparing autism rates in vaccinated vs. unvaccinated children?…’ She started telling us about everything she’s done …After she wasted three minutes, I cut her off and I demanded that she answer the question. And then, only then, did she admit that the federal government has never done that very simple, fundamental, basic study. (51)
In light of the growing evidence of corruption and fraud within the CDC, Representative Bill Posey has called for an investigation of the CDC on the issue of vaccine science. (52)
Reevaluating the Vaccine Safety Paradigm
Even a cursory review of the independent scientific literature on the safety of vaccines and their ingredients demonstrates clearly that our national policies on immunization are deeply flawed.
No amount of propaganda can change the fact that vaccines introduce a toxic load to the human body that can cause a wide range of harmful side effects including neurological disease. The failure of our health authorities to undertake independent, gold standard research examining the long-term effects of the CDC vaccine schedule demonstrates the extent to which our medical halls of power are plagued by depraved special interests. We must refuse to participate in this risky game which forces toxic vaccines on our children and we must demand an end to the medical fascism behind it.
- Sakamoto M, et al. Widespread neuronal degeneration in rats following oral administration of methylmercury during the postnatal developing phase: a model of fetal-type minamata disease. Brain Res. 1998; 784(1-2):351-354.
- Echeverria D, et al. Neurobehavioral effects from exposure to dental amalgam Hg(o): new distinctions between recent exposure and Hg body burden. FASEB J. 1998; 12(11):971-980.
- Myers GJ, et al. A review of methylmercury and child development. Neurotoxicology. 1998; 19(2):313-328.
- Myers GJ, et al. Prenatal methylmercury exposure and children: neurologic, developmental, and behavioral research. Environ Health Perspect. 1998; 106 Suppl 3:841-847.
- Hooker, Brian, Janet Kern, David Geier, Boyd Haley, Lisa Sykes, Paul King, and Mark Geier. “Methodological Issues and Evidence of Malfeasance in Research Purporting to Show Thimerosal in Vaccines Is Safe.” BioMed Research International, 2014, 1-8. Accessed November 8, 2015. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4065774/.
- Desoto MC, Hitlan RT. Desoto MC, Hitlan RT. “Sorting out the spinning of autism: heavy metals and the question of incidence” Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2010;70(2):165-76.
- Shandley, Kerrie, and David W. Austin. “Ancestry of Pink Disease (Infantile Acrodynia) Identified as a Risk Factor for Autism Spectrum Disorders.” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A 74.18 (2011): 1185-194. 28 July 2011. Web.
- Shaw, Christopher A, Dan Li, and Lucija Tomljenovic. “Are There Negative CNS impacts of Aluminum Adjuvants Used in Vaccines and Immunotherapy?” Immunotherapy 6, no. 10 (2014): 1055-071. Accessed November 17, 2015. doi:10.2217/imt.14.81.
- “Autism Explained: Synergistic Poisoning from Aluminum and Glyphosate”. Stephanie Seneff, May 24, 2014, http://people.csail.mit.edu/seneff/glyphosate/Seneff_AutismOne_2014.pdf
- Roberts, Janine, Fear of the Invisible, Impact Investigative Media Productions, 2008
- Wahlbert J, et al, “Vaccinations May Induce Diabetes-related Autoantibodies in One Year old Children,” Annals of NY Academy of Sciences, 2003 Nov; 1005; 404-88.
- Classen JB, Classen DC, “Clustering of Cases of Insulin Dependent Diabetes Occurring Three Years After Haemophilus Influenza B Immunization Supports Causal Relationship Between Immunization and IDDM,” Autoimmunity 2002 Jul; 35 (4); 247-53.
- Jane Doe v. Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services, January 16, 2009
- Roberts, C. L., A. V. Keita, S. H. Duncan, N. O’kennedy, J. D. Soderholm, J. M. Rhodes, and B. J. Campbell. “Translocation of Crohn’s Disease Escherichia Coli across M-cells: Contrasting Effects of Soluble Plant Fibres and Emulsifiers.” Gut 59 (2010): 1331-339. doi:doi:10.1136/gut.2009.195370.
- Strupp, W., G. Weidinger, C. Scheller, R. Ehret, H. Ohnimus, H. Girschick, P. Tas, E. Flory, M. Heinkelein, and C. Jassoy. “Treatment of Cells with Detergent Activates Caspases and Induces Apoptotic Cell Death.” Journal of Membrane Biology 173, no. 3 (2000): 181-89.
- Oberle, R.l., T.j. Moore, and D.a.p. Krummel. “Evaluation of Mucosal Damage of Surfactants in Rat Jejunum and Colon.” Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods 33, no. 2 (1995): 75-81
- Geier DA, Jordan SK, Geier MR “The Relative Toxicity of Compounds Used as Preservatives in Vaccines and Biologics.” Medical Science Monitor 2010;16(5): SR21-SR27.
- Hewitson L, Lopresti BJ, Stott C, Mason NS, Tomko J. “Influence of pediatric vaccines on amygdala growth and opioid ligand binding in rhesus macaque infants: A pilot study.” Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2010;70(2):147-64.
- Singh VK, Lin SX, Newell E, Nelson C. “Abnormal measles-mumps-rubella antibodies and CNS autoimmunity in children with autism” J Biomed Sci. 2002 Jul-Aug;9(4):359-64.
- Schultz, S. T., H. S. Klonoff-Cohen, D. L. Wingard, N. A. Akshoomoff, C. A. Macera, and Ming Ji. “Acetaminophen (paracetamol) Use, Measles-mumps-rubella Vaccination, and Autistic Disorder: The Results of a Parent Survey.” Autism, 2008, 293-307. Accessed November 9, 2015.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18445737.
- Holland M et al “Unanswered Questions from the Vaccine Injury compensation Program: A Review of Compensated Cases of Vaccine-Induced Brain Injury,” Pace Environmental Law Review Volume 28, Issue 2, Winter 2011.
- Delong, G. “Conflicts of Interest in Vaccine Safety Research.” Accountability in Research 19, no. 2 (2012): 65-88. Accessed November 14, 2015. doi:10.1080/08989621.2012.660073.
Supplementary Studies on Vaccine and Vaccine Ingredient Safety
Geier DA, Geier MR. A comparative evaluation of the effects of MMR immunization and mercury doses from thimerosal-containing childhood vaccines on the population prevalence of autism.Med Sci Monit. 2004 Mar;10(3):PI33-9.
Geier D, Geier MR. Neurodevelopmental disorders following thimerosal-containing childhood immunizations: a follow-up analysis. Int J Toxicol. 2004 Nov-Dec;23(6):369-76
Humphrey ML, Cole MP, Pendergrass JC, Kiningham KK. Mitochondrial Mediated Thimerosal-Induced Apoptosis in a Human Neuroblastoma Cell Line (SK-N-SH). Neurotoxicology. 2005 Apr 30; (Epub ahead of print)
Classen JB, Classen DC . Clustering of cases of type 1 diabetes mellitus occurring 2‐4 years after vaccination is consistent with clustering after infections and progression to type 1 diabetes mellitus in autoantibody positive individuals. JPediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Apr‐May;16(4):495‐508.
Heidary N, Cohen D. Hypersensitivity reactions to vaccine components.
Dermatitis: Contact, Atopic, Occupational, Drug: Official Journal Of The American Contact Dermatitis Society, North American Contact
Dermatitis Group [serial online]. September 2005;16(3):115-120.
Annamari Mäkelä, J. Pekka Nuorti, and Heikki Peltola,. Neurologic Disorders After Measles‐Mumps‐Rubella Vaccination PEDIATRICS Vol.110 No. 5 November 2002, pp. 957‐963
Redhead, K., G. J. Quinlan, R. G. Das, and J. M. C. Gutteridge. “Aluminium-Adjuvanted Vaccines Transiently Increase Aluminium Levels in Murine Brain Tissue.” Pharmacology & Toxicology 70.4 (1992): 278-80. Print.
Buttram, Harold E. Abnormal T‐lymphocyte subpopulations in healthy subjects after tetanus booster immunization. N Engl Med. 1984 Jan 19;310(3):198‐9. No abstract available. PMID: 6228737
Parran DK, Barker A, Ehrich M. Effects of Thimerosal on NGF signal transduction and cell death in neuroblastoma cells Toxicol Sci. 2005 Apr 20;
Havarinasab S, Haggqvist B, Bjorn E, Pollard KM, Hultman P. Immunosuppressive and autoimmune effects of thimerosal in mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2005 Apr 15;204(2):109-21.
Ueha-Ishibashi T, Tatsuishi T, Iwase K, Nakao H, Umebayashi C, Nishizaki Y, Nishimura Y, Oyama Y, Hirama S, Okano Y. Property of thimerosal-induced decrease in cellular content of glutathione in rat thymocytes: a flow cytometric study with 5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate.Toxicol In Vitro. 2004 Oct;18(5):563-9
Dórea JG. Integrating Experimental (In Vitro and In Vivo) Neurotoxicity Studies of Low-dose Thimerosal Relevant to Vaccines.Neurochem Res. 2011 Feb 25.
Cherkasova E, Korotkova E, Yakovenko M, et al. Long‐term circulation of vaccine‐derived poliovirus that causes paralytic disease. Journal Of Virology [serial online]. July 2002;76(13):6791 ‐ 6799
Philip J.Landrigan; John J.Witte MEASLES: Neurologic Disorders Following Live Measles‐Virus Vaccination Neurologic Disorders Following Live Measles‐Virus Vaccination. JAMA.1973; 223 (13):1459‐1462.
Kathleen R. Stratton, CynthiaJ. Howe, and Richard B. Johnston ,Jr. Adverse Events Associated with Childhood Vaccines: Evidence Bearing on Causality. Institute of Medicine (IOM). 1994.
Gajkowska B, Smialek M, Ostrowski R, Piotrowski P, Frontczak‐Baniewicz M. The experimental squalene encephaloneuropathy in the rat. Experimental And Toxicologic Pathology : Official Journal Of The Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie [serialonline]. January 1999; 51(1):75‐80
Olczak M, Duszczyk M, Mierzejewski P, Wierzba-Bobrowicz T, Majewska MD.
Lasting neuropathological changes in rat brain after intermittent neonatal administration of thimerosal. Folia Neuropathol. 2010;48(4):258-69.
Minami T, Miyata E, Sakamoto Y, Yamazaki H, Ichida S.
Induction of metallothionein in mouse cerebellum and cerebrum with low-dose thimerosal injection.Cell Biol Toxicol. 2010 Apr;26(2):143-52. Epub 2009 Apr 9.
Majewska MD, Urbanowicz E, Rok-Bujko P, Namyslowska I, Mierzejewski P.Age-dependent lower or higher levels of hair mercury in autistic children than in healthy controls. Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2010;70(2):196-208.
Satoh M, Kuroda Y, Yoshida H, Behney KM, Mizutani A, Akaogi], Nacionales DC, Lorenson TD, Rosenbauer R, Reeves WH ,“Induction of lupus autoantibodies by adjuvants” Journal of Autoimmunity, (2003) Aug;21(l):1‐9.
Geier, D.a., P.g. King, and M.r. Geier. “Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Impaired Oxidative-reduction Activity, Degeneration, and Death in Human Neuronal and Fetal Cells Induced by Low-level Exposure to Thimerosal and Other Metal Compounds.” Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry 91.4 (2009): 735-49. Web. 23 Nov. 2015.
Hair mercury in breast-fed infants exposed to thimerosal-preserved vaccines. Marques RC, Dórea JG, Fonseca MF, Bastos WR, Malm O. Eur J Pediatr. 2007 Sep;166(9):935-41. Epub 2007 Jan 20. PMID: 17237965
Neonate exposure to thimerosal mercury from hepatitis B vaccines. Dórea JG, Marques RC, Brandão KG. Am J Perinatol. 2009 Aug;26(7):523-7. Epub 2009 Mar 12. PMID:19283656
James SJ, Slikker W 3rd, Melnyk S, New E, Pogribna M, Jernigan S. Thimerosal neurotoxicity is associated with glutathione depletion: protection with glutathione precursors. Neurotoxicology. 2005 Jan;26(1):1-8.
Hornig M, Chian D, Lipkin WI. Neurotoxic effects of postnatal thimerosal are mouse strain dependent. Mol Psychiatry. 2004 Sep;9(9):833-45
Integrating Experimental (In Vitro and In Vivo) Neurotoxicity Studies of Low-dose Thimerosal Relevant to Vaccines.
Exley C, Esiri MM. Severe cerebral congophilic angiopathy coincident with increased brain aluminium in a resident of Camelford. Cornwall, UK. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2006;77(7):877-9
Exley C, Vickers T. Elevated brain aluminium and early onset Alzheimer’s disease in an individual occupationally exposed to aluminium: a case report. J Med Case Rep 2014;8(1):41
Exley C, House E, Polwart A, et al. Brain burdens of aluminium, iron and copper and their relationships with amyloid-beta pathology in 60 human brains. J Alzheimers Dis 2013;31(4):725-3
Blaylock, RL. A possible central mechanism in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Part 2: Immunoexcitotoxicity.
Alter. Ther. Health. Med., 2009, 15, 60-67.
Alfrey AC, Legendre GR, Kaehny WD. Dialysis encephalopathy syndrome-possible aluminium intoxication. N Engl J Med 1976;294(4):184-8
House E, Esiri M, Forster G, et al. Aluminium, iron and copper in human brain tissues donated to the medical research council’s cognitive function and ageing study. Metallomics 2012;4(1):56-65
Brenner S. Aluminum may mediate Alzheimer’s disease through liver toxicity, with aberrant hepatic synthesis of ceruloplasmin and ATPase7B, the resultant excess free copper causing brain oxidation, beta-amyloid aggregation and Alzheimer disease. Med Hypotheses. 2013 Mar;80(3):326-7. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2012.11.036. Epub 2012 Dec 20.
Shrivastava S. Combined effect of HEDTA and selenium against aluminum induced oxidative stress in rat brain. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2012 Jun;26(2-3):210-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2012.04.014. Epub 2012 May 8.
Bondy SC. The neurotoxicity of environmental aluminum is still an issue. Neurotoxicology. 2010 Sep;31(5):575-81. doi: 10.1016/j.neuro.2010.05.009. Epub 2010 May 27. Review.
Nishida Y. Elucidation of endemic neurodegenerative diseases–a commentary. Z Naturforsch C. 2003 Sep-Oct;58(9-10):752-8. Review.
Polizzi S, Pira E, Ferrara M, Bugiani M, Papaleo A, Albera R, Palmi S. Neurotoxic effects of aluminium among foundry workers and Alzheimer’s disease. Neurotoxicology. 2002 Dec;23(6):761-74.
Tulpule K et al; Formaldehyde metabolism and formaldehyde-induced stimulation of lactate production and glutathione export in cultured neurons.
J Neurochem. 2013 Apr;125(2):260-72. doi: 10.1111/jnc.12170. Epub 2013 Feb 24.
The original source of this article is Global Research
Copyright © Dr. Gary Null, Global Research, 2015
TLB recommends you read more great/pertinent articles from Global Research.